Gap-opening Feedback on Protoplanetary Disk Thermal Structure

Kan Chen, Mihkel Kama, Paola Pinilla

Planets embedded in protoplanetary disks can curve gaps or cavities, which plays an
important role in the signatures of planet-disk interactions. Though the planet gapopening
process and disk thermal structures (e.g. temperature, snowlines, ice) are widely
studied, how the gap-opening process affects disk evolution through the feedback of the
presence of embedded planets is still an open question. In this project, we develop a
new modeling method by iterating hydrodynamical and radiative transfer simulations to
explore the gap-opening feedback on disk thermal structure. Meanwhile, we carry out
parameter studies by considering different planet locations rp and planet masses Mp. We
find for the same rp and Mp, our iteration method predicts a wider and deeper gap than
the non-iteration method which is usually used in previous studies. We also find that by
considering the gap-opening feedback from our iteration method and comparing it to noniterated
results, disk temperature structure can be changed, which can further influence
dust trap conditions, snowline, and ice distribution of various ices, such as H2O, CO2, and CO
on large dust grains (“pebbles”). Through that, a gap-opening planet may influence the
composition of the next generation of planetesimals and planets in the disk.