Resolving the 2D snow surfaces of water, methanol, and more complex organic molecules

Margot Leemker, Teresa Paneque-Carreno, John J. Tobin, Merel L.R. van 't Hoff, Alice S. Booth, Ewine F. van Dishoeck

Many bright disks show signs of ongoing planet formation such as deep cavities and rings. These may be carved by massive planets but how the planets form remains one of the biggest questions to date. On top of that, their chemical composition depends on their formation location with respect to the snowlines, the midplane radius where a major volatile freezes out. One possible solution to solve the planet formation puzzle is that planets form around the water snowline. We will resolve and locate the 2D water snow surface for the first time in a disk around a young outbursting star using HDO, an isotopologue of water observed with ALMA. Additionally, we resolve the 2D snow surface of methanol and other complex organic molecules to observationally establish which ices are present on the grains that will eventually form planets.