Multiple Rings and Asymmetric Structures in the Disk of SR 21

Yi Yang, Hauyu Liu, Takayuki Muto, Jun Hashimoto, Ruobing Dong, Kazuhiro Kanagawa, Munetake Momose, Eiji Akiyama, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Takashi Tsukagoshi, Mihiko Konishi, Motohide Tamura

Crescent-like asymmetric dust structures discovered in protoplanetary disks indicate dust aggregations. Thus, the research on them helps us understand the planet formation process. Here we analyze the ALMA data of the protoplanetary disk around the T-Tauri star SR 21, which has asymmetric structures detected in previous sub-millimeter observations. Imaged at ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) with a spatial resolution of about 0."04, the disk is found to consist of two rings and three asymmetric structures, with two of the asymmetric structures being in the same ring.
After comparing with previous Band 3 (2.7 mm) observations, we suggest that the asymmetric structures in the outer ring could be due to the break of a large asymmetric structure formed at an earlier time, caused by the interactions with a slow-growing planet.
By fitting the Band 3 and Band 6 dust continuum data, two branches of solutions of maximum dust size in the disk are suggested: one is larger than 1 mm, and the other is smaller than 300 microns. High-resolution continuum observations at longer wavelengths as well as polarization observations can help break the degeneracy. We also suggest that the prominent spiral previously identified in VLT/SPHERE observations to the south of the star at 0."25 may be the scattered light counterpart of the inner arc, and the structure is a dust-trapping vortex in nature. The discovered features in SR 21 make it a good target for studying the evolution of asymmetric structures and planet formation.